Appendix #4: Rolling Resistance

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Rolling resistance is the force that resists the rolling of a wheel or other circular object along a surface caused by deformations in the object and/or surface. An example of the effect of rolling resistance is the generation of heat and sound as by-products. The table below (Carvill, 1989) shows example rolling resistances for pneumatic tyres on various road surfaces. Spry provides a default value of 0.03 to new segment codes as a working average.

Drive Surface Rolling Resistance
New Asphalt/Concrete 0.01 (1%)
Worn Asphalt/Concrete 0.02
Rolled New Gravel 0.01
Loose Worn Gravel 0.04
Medium Hard Soil 0.08
Sand 0.1 – 0.2

Carvill, J. (1993): Mechanical Engineer’s Data Handbook