Rolling resistance is the force that resists the rolling of a wheel or other circular object along a surface caused by deformations in the object and/or surface. An example of the effect of rolling resistance is the generation of heat and sound as by-products. The table below (Carvill, 1989) shows example rolling resistances for pneumatic tyres on various road surfaces. Spry provides a default value of 0.03 to new segment codes as a working average.
|Drive Surface||Rolling Resistance|
|New Asphalt/Concrete||0.01 (1%)|
|Rolled New Gravel||0.01|
|Loose Worn Gravel||0.04|
|Medium Hard Soil||0.08|
|Sand||0.1 – 0.2|
Carvill, J. (1993): Mechanical Engineer’s Data Handbook