Appendix #1: Format Strings

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Format specifier Name Description Examples
“0″ Zero placeholder Replaces the zero with the corresponding digit if one is present; otherwise, zero appears in the result string. 1234.5678 (“00000″) -> 012350.45678 (“0.00″, en-US) -> 0.46
“#” Digit placeholder Replaces the “#” symbol with the corresponding digit if one is present; otherwise, no digit appears in the result string. 1234.5678 (“#####”) -> 12350.45678 (“#.##”, en-US) -> .46
“.” Decimal point Determines the location of the decimal separator in the result string. 0.45678 (“0.00″) -> 0.46
“,” Group separator and number scaling Serves as both a group separator and a number scaling specifier. As a group separator, it inserts a localized group separator character between each group. As a number scaling specifier, it divides a number by 1000 for each comma specified. Group separator specifier:2147483647 (“##,#”) -> 2,147,483,647

Scaling specifier:

2147483647 (“#,#,,”) -> 2,147

“%” Percentage placeholder Multiplies a number by 100 and inserts a localized percentage symbol in the result string. 0.3697 (“%#0.00″) -> %36.970.3697 (“##.0 %”) -> 37.0 %
“‰” Per mille placeholder Multiplies a number by 1000 and inserts a localized per mille symbol in the result string. 0.03697 (“#0.00‰”) -> 36.97‰
“E0″“E+0″

“E-0″

“e0″

“e+0″

“e-0″

Exponential notationExponential notation If followed by at least one 0 (zero), formats the result using exponential notation. The case of “E” or “e” indicates the case of the exponent symbol in the result string. The number of zeros following the “E” or “e” character determines the minimum number of digits in the exponent. A plus sign (+) indicates that a sign character always precedes the exponent. A minus sign (-) indicates that a sign character precedes only negative exponents. 987654 (“#0.0e0″) -> 98.8e41503.92311 (“0.0##e+00″) -> 1.504e+03

1.8901385E-16 (“0.0e+00″) -> 1.9e-16

\ Escape character Causes the next character to be interpreted as a literal rather than as a custom format specifier. 987654 (“\###00\#”) -> #987654#
‘string’“string” Literal string delimiter Indicates that the enclosed characters should be copied to the result string unchanged. 68 (“# ‘ degrees’”) -> 68 degrees68 (“#’ degrees’”) -> 68 degrees
; Section separator Defines sections with separate format strings for positive, negative, and zero numbers. 12.345 (“#0.0#;(#0.0#);-\0-”) -> 12.350 (“#0.0#;(#0.0#);-\0-”) -> -0-

-12.345 (“#0.0#;(#0.0#);-\0-”) -> (12.35)

12.345 (“#0.0#;(#0.0#)”) -> 12.35

0 (“#0.0#;(#0.0#)”) -> 0.0

-12.345 (“#0.0#;(#0.0#)”) -> (12.35)

“|” Point3D separator
Other All other characters The character is copied to the result string unchanged. 680 (“# bcm”) -> 680 bcm